08-Remixing (1:18) (42 views)
“Het gros van wat we vandaag ervaren is gerecombineerd, wordt op een nieuwe manier ervaren. En in de toekomst zal het aantal media keuzes alleen maar toenemen.”
Groei komt door remixen
Paul Romer, an economist at New York University who specializes in the theory of economic growth, says real sustainable economic growth does not stem from new resources (middelen) but from existing resources that are rearranged to make them more valuable (waardevol). Growth comes from remixing. Brian Arthur, an economist at the Sante Fe Institute who specializes in the dynamics of technological growth, says that all new technologies derive (komen voort) from a combination of existing (bestaande) technologies. Modern technologies are combinations of earlier primitive technologies that have been rearranged and remixed. Since one can combine hundreds of simpler technologies with hundreds of thousands of more complex technologies, there is an unlimited number of possible (mogelijke) new technologies – but they are all remixes. What is true for economic and technological growth is also true for digital growth. We are in a period of productive remixing. Innovators (vernieuwers) recombine simpler earlier media genres with later complex genres to produce an unlimited number (onbeperkt aantal) of new media genres. The more new genres, the more possible newer ones can be remixed from them. The rate of possible combinations grows exponentially, expanding the culture and the economy. (p.193-194)
Transformeerde het ’t origineel, of was het slechts een kopie?
The entire global economy is tipping (‘drijft’) away from the material and toward intangible (ontastbare) bits. It is moving away from ownership and toward access. It is tilting away (kantelt) from the value of copies and toward the value of networks. It is headed for the inevitability (onvermijdelijkheid) of constant, relentless (meedogenloos), and increasing remixing. The laws will be slow to follow, but they will follow.
So what should the new laws (wetten) favor (de voorkeur geven aan) in a world of remixing?
Appropiation (toeëigening) of existing material is a venerable (eerbiedwaardig) and necessary practice. As the economists Romer and Arthur remind us, recombination is really the only source of innovation – and wealth. I suggest we follow the question, “Has it been transformed by the borrower (de lener)?” Did the remixing, the mashup, the sampling, the appropiation, the borrowing – did it transform the original rather than just copy it? Did Andy Warhol transform the Campbell’s soup can? If yes, then the derivative (derivaat, het afgeleide) is not really a “copy”; it’s been transformed, mutated, improved, evolved. The answer each time is still a judgment call (een rechterlijke uitspraak), but the question of whether it has been transformed is the right question.
Transformation is a powerful test because “transformation” is another term of becoming. “Transformation” acknowledges (erkent) that the creations we make today will become, and should become, something else tomorrow. Nothing can remain untouched, unaltered. By that I mean, every creation that has any value will eventually and inevitably be transformed – in some version – into something different. Sure, the version of Harry Potter that J.K. Rowling published in 1997 will always be available, but it is inevitable that another thousand fan fiction versions of her book will be penned by avid amateurs in the coming decades. The more powerful the invention or creation, the more likely and more important it is that it will be transformed by others.
In 30 years the most important cultural works and the most powerful mediums will be those that have been remixed the most. (p. 209-210)
Twaalf technologische krachten die onze toekomst zullen vormen
01. Becoming (worden) – 02. Cognifying (slimmeren) – 03. Flowing (stromen) – 04. Screening (kijken) – 05. Accessing (toegangen) – 06. Sharing (delen) – 07. Filtering (filteren) – 08. Remixing (remixen) – 09. Interacting (interacteren) – 10. Tracking (tracken) – 11. Questioning (vragen) – 12. Beginning (beginnen)
Een artikel over Seth Godin en een boek waarin hij het ook over dít remixen heeft: Een prentenboek voor oefenaars (mei 2014)
“Remix, reuse (hergebruik), respect, recycle, revisit, reclaim, revere (draai om), resorb (neem op) – art doesn’t repeat itself, but it rhymes“
(zaterdag 6 augustus 2016)
Hans van Duijnhoven