03-Flowing (0:48) (57 views)
“Waar je ook werkt, (vanaf) nu werk je in een data bedrijf”
Bijna alles kan worden gekopieerd
The internet is the greatest copy machine. At its most fundamental level this machine copies every action, every character, every thought we make while we ride upon it. In order to send a message from one corner of the internet to another, the protocols of communication demand that the whole message be copied along the way several times. (p. 61)
Rivier vol vrij stromende kopieën
The digital economy runs on this river of freely flowing copies. () Once a copy has touched the internet, it never leaves.
This superdistribution system has become the foundation of our economy and wealth. The instant reduplication (verdubbeling) of data, ideas, and media underpins (onderbouwd) the major sectors of a 21st-century economy. (p. 61-62)
Onmogelijk te stoppen
We can’t stop massive indiscriminate (zonder onderscheid te maken) copying. Not only would that sabotage the engine of wealth if we could, but it would halt the internet itself. Free-flowing copies are baked into the nature of this global communications system. The technology of the net needs to copy without constraint (beperking). The flow of copies is inevitable (onvermijdelijk). (p. 62)
Een nieuw tijdperk: the Flows
Formerly solid products made of steel and leather are now sold as fluid services that keep updating. Your solid car parked in a driveway has been transformed into a personal on-demand transportation serrvice supplied by Uber, Lyft, Zip, and Sidecar – which are improving faster than automobiles are. Grocery shopping is no longer a hit-or-miss affair; now a steady flow of household replenishables (aanvullingen) streams into our homes uninterrupted. You get a better telephone every few months because a flow of new operating systems install themselves on your smartphones, adding new features and new benefits that in the past would have required new hardware. Then, when you do get new hardware, the service maintains the familiar operating system you had, flowing your personalization onto the new device. This total sequence (serie) of perpetual (eeuwigdurende) upgrades is continuous. It’s a dream come true for our insatiable (onverzadigbare) human appetite: rivers of uninterrupted betterment.
At the heart of this new regime of constant flux is ever tinier specks of computation. We are currently entering the third phase of computing, the Flows. p. 62-63)
De eerste golf: ‘het kantoor’
The initial age of computing borrowed from the industrial age. As Marshall McLuhan observed, the first version of a new medium imitates the medium it replaces. The first commercial computers employed (gebruikten) the metaphor of the office. Our screens had a “desktop” and “folders” and “files”. They were hierarchically ordered, like much of the industrial age that the computer was overthrowing.
De tweede golf: ‘het web’
The second digital age overturned the office metaphor and brought us the organizing principle of the web. The basic unit was no longer files but “pages”. Pages were not organized into folders, but were arranged into a networked web. The web was a billion hyperlinked pages which contained everything, both stored information and active knowledge. The desktop interface was replaced by a “browser”, a uniform window that looked into any and all pages. This web of links was flat.
De derde golf: ‘stromen’
Now we are transitioning into the third age of computation. Pages and browsers are far less important. Today the prime units are flows and streams. We constantly monitor Twitter streams and the flows of posts on our Facebook wall. We stream photos, movies, and music. News banners stream across the bottom of TVs. We subscribe to YouTube streams, called channels. And RSS feeds from blogs. We are bathed in streams of notifications (‘nieuwtjes’) and updates. Our apps improve in a flow of upgrades. Tags have replaced links. We tag and “like” and “favorite” moments in the streams. Some streams, like Snapchat, WeChat, and WhatsApp, operate totally in the present, with no past or future. They just flow past. If you see something, fine. Then its is gone. (p. 63)
Ook onze tijdsverwachting verandert
Flowing time has shifted as well. In the first era, tasks were accomplished in batch mode. You got your bills every month. Taxes were all paid on the same day of the year.
() Then in the second age, along came the web, and very quickly we expected everything the same day. If we withdrew money from our bank, we expected the deduction to show up in our account the same day, not at the end of the month. If we sent an email, we expected a reply later in the day, not two weeks later, like regular mail.
() Now in the third age, we’ve moved from daily mode to real time. If we message someone, we expect them to reply instantly. (p. 64)
Real-time books, ditto. In the predigital days I bought printed books long before I intended to read them. If I spied (ontdekte) an enticing (verleidelijk) book in a bookstore I bought it. At first, the internet deepened my hefty backlog (forse achterstand) because I encountered more and more recommendations online. When the Kindle came along, I switched to primarily (voornamelijk) purchasing (aankopen) only digital books, but I kept the old habit of purchasing ebooks whenever I encountered a great recommendation (aanbeveling). It was so easy! Click, got it. Then I had an epiphany (inzicht) that I am sure others have had as well. If I purchase a book ahead of time, it just sits in the same place that a book I have not bought sits (in the cloud) but in the paid bucket instead of the unpaid bucket. Why not just leave it in the unpaid bucket? So now, I don’t purchase a book until I am ready to read it in the next 30 seconds. This sort of just-in-time purchasing is the natural consequence of real-time streaming. (p. 64-65)
Bespaar je klanten tijd en moeite
In the industrial age, companies did their utmost to save themselves time by increasing their efficiency and productivity. That is not enough today. Now organizations need to save their customers and citizens time. They need to do their utmost to interact in real time. Real time is human time.
() So in order to run in real time, our technological infrastructure needed to liquify (vloeibaar worden). Nouns (zelfstandige naamwoorden) needed to be verbs (werkwoorden). Fixed solid things became services. Data couldn’t remain still. Everything had to flow into the stream of now. (p. 65)
De cloud is waar alles wat moet stromen ‘wacht’
The union of zillion streams of information, intermingling, flowing into each other, is what we call the cloud. Software flows from the cloud to you as a stream of upgrades. The cloud is where your stream of texts go before they arrive on your friend’s screen. The cloud is where the parade of movie sunder your account rests until you call for them. The cloud is the reservoir that songs escape from. The cloud is the seat where the intelligence of Siri sits, even as she speaks to you. The cloud is the new organizing metaphor for computers. The foundational units of this third digital regime, then, are flows, and clouds. (p. 65)
Verkoop ‘dingen’ die niet gekopieerd kunnen worden!
Now the axis of value has flipped again. Rivers of free copies have undermined the established order. In this new supersaturated (super verzadigde) digital universe of infinite free digital duplication, copies are so ubiquitous (alomtegenwoordig), so cheap – free, in fact – that the only things truly valuable are those that cannot be copied. The technology is telling us that copies don’t count anymore. To put it simply: When copies are superabundant (super overvloedig), they become worthless. Instead, stuff that can’t be copied becomes scarce and valuable. (p. 67)
Wat kan niet gekopieerd worden? Vertrouwen (bijvoorbeeld)
When copies are free, you need to sell things that cannot be copied. Well, what can’t be copied?
Trust, for instance. Trust cannot be reproduced in bulk. You can’t purchase trust wholesale (bij de groothandel). You can’t download trust and store it in a database or warehouse. You can’t simply duplicate someone’s trust. Trust must be earned, over time. It cannot be faked. or counterfeited (vervalst) (at least for long). (p. 67)
In a real sense, these uncopyable values are things that are “better than free”. Free is good, but these are better since you’ll pay for them. I call these qualities “generatives”. A generative value is a quality or attribute that must be generated at the time of the transaction. A generative thing cannot be copied, cloned, stored, and warehoused. A generative cannot be faked or replicated. It is generated uniquely, for that particaular exchange, in real time. Generative qualities add value to free copis and therefore are something that can be sold.
Here are eight generatives that are “better than free”. (p. 68)
Nieuwe vaardigheden nodig
These eight qualities require a new skill (bekwaamheid) set for creators. Success no longer derives from mastering distribution. Distribution is nearly automatic; it’s all streams. The Great Copy Machine in the Sky takes care of that. The technical skills of copy protection are no longer useful because you can’t stop copying. Trying to prohibit (verbieden) copying, either by legal threats of technical tricks, just don’t work. Nor do the skills of boarding and scarcity. Rather, these eight new generatives demand nurturing (verzorgende) qualities that can’t be replicated with a click of the mouse. Success in this new realm requires mastering the liquidity. (p. 73)
Voeg waarde toe! Laat ‘dingen’ stromen
What counts are not the number of copies but the number of ways a copy can be linked, manipulated, annotated, tagged, highlighted, bookmarked, translated, and enlivened by other media. Value has shifted away from a copy toward the many ways to recall, annotate, personalize, edit, authenticate, display, mark, transfer, and engage a work. What counts is how well the work flows. (p. 74)
Maak vloeibaar, laat ‘het’ stromen
So much more of our routines and infrastructure remains to be liquified, but liquified and streamed they will be. The steady titanic tilt (neiging) toward dematerialization and decentralization means that further flows are inevitable. It seems a stretch right now that the most solid and fixed apparatus in our manufactured environment would be transformed into etheral (etherische) forces, but the soft will trump (overtroeven) the hard. Knowledge will rule atoms. Generative intangibles will rise above the free. Think of the world flowing. (p. 82-83)
Twaalf technologische krachten die onze toekomst zullen vormen
01. Becoming (worden) – 02. Cognifying (slimmeren) – 03. Flowing (stromen) – 04. Screening (kijken) – 05. Accessing (toegangen) – 06. Sharing (delen) – 07. Filtering (filteren) – 08. Remixing (remixen) – 09. Interacting (interacteren) – 10. Tracking (tracken) – 11. Questioning (vragen) – 12. Beginning (beginnen)
(donderdag 4 augustus 2016)
Hans van Duijnhoven